Prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Fresh Cow Milk Produced in Chattogram, Bangladesh




Aflatoxin M1, ELISA, milk.


This study was carried out to examine the prevalence of AFM1 contamination across different areas of Chattogram, Bangladesh, and to assess the level of AFM1 in raw milk samples from various dairy farms. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the farming standards of three different Chattogram neighborhoods—Bakalia, Khulshi, and Pahartali—and to ascertain the amount of AFM1 in milk. In the study location, 30 commercial dairy farms were randomly chosen, and data on farming methods, milk production techniques, and knowledge of aflatoxin contamination were gathered. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, collected milk samples (n = 90) were examined for the presence of AFM1. The farms produced 71.67±14.71 liters of milk on average every day, which was primarily supplied to dairy processing plants. For feeding the cows, all farms used concentrates and forage.  The mean concentration of AFM1 in milk samples collected from Bakalia was higher (190.00±120.87 ng/L) than that in milk samples collected from the Khulshi (108.44±66.19 ng/L) and Pahartali (189.25±160.78 ng/L). The overall prevalence of AFM1 was 43% (N=39) of the total examined samples. A total of 69% (N=27) and 5% (N=2) of AFM1 positive samples exceeded the European Union Regulation (50 ng/L) and BSTI/BFSA regulations (500 ng/L) respectively. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of AFM1 in Bakalia regarding Khulshi and Pahartali. This research will aid in measuring the AFM1 content in raw milk and helping to address public health issues.


Ali N. 2016. Biological monitoring and exposure assessment for mycotoxins in inhabitants of Bangladesh and Germany. Journal: Technische Universität Dortmund, Doctoral dissertation.

Bahrami R, Shahbazi Y, Nikousefat Z. 2016. Occurrence and seasonal variation of aflatoxin in dairy cow feed with estimation of aflatoxin M 1 in milk from Iran. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 27(3): 388 – 400.

Battacone G, Nudda A, Cannas A, Borlino AC, Bomboi G, Pulina G. 2003. Excretion of aflatoxin M1 in milk of dairy ewes treated with different doses of aflatoxin B1. Journal of Dairy Science, 86(8): 2667 – 2675.

Codex Alimentarius Commissions (CAC). 2001. Comments submitted on the draft maximum level for Aflatoxin M1 in milk. Codex committee on food additives and contaminants 33rd sessions, Hauge, The Netherlands.

Creppy EE. 2002. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicology Letters, 127(1-3): 19 – 28.

D’Mello JPF, Macdonald AMC. 1997. Mycotoxins. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 69(1-3): 155 – 166.

Dawlatana M, Coker RD, Nagler MJ, Wild CP, Hassan MS, Blunden G. 2002. The occurrence of mycotoxins in key commodities in Bangladesh: surveillance results from 1993 to 1995. Journal of Natural Toxins, 11(4): 379 – 386.

Elzupir AO, Elhussein AM. 2010. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in dairy cattle milk in Khartoum State, Sudan. Food Control, 21(6): 945 – 946.

Fallah AA. 2010. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in dairy products marketed in Iran during winter and summer. Food Control, 21(11): 1478 – 1481.

Galvano F, Piva A, Ritieni A, Galvano G. 2001. Dietary strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins: a review. Journal of Food Protection, 64(1): 120 – 131.

Ghanem I, Orfi M. 2009. Aflatoxin M1 in raw, pasteurized and powdered milk available in the Syrian market. Food Control, 20(6): 603 – 605.

Ghazani MHM. 2009. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in pasteurized milk in Tabriz (northwest of Iran). Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(7): 1624 – 1625.

Gürses M, ERDOĞAN A, Çetin B. 2004. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in some cheese types sold in erzurum, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 28(3): 527 – 530.

Huchchannanavar S, Balol GB. 2011. Aflatoxins in food chain and their management. Current Biotica, 5(2): 250 – 263.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1992. Some naturally occurring substances: Food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. Apresentado em: IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Some Naturally Occurring Substances: Food Items and Constituents. Lyon.

Lafont P, Siriwardana M, Lafont J. 1989. Genotoxicity of hydroxy-aflatoxins M1 and M4. Microbiology Alimentarius Nutrition, 7: 1 – 8.

Makau CM, Matofari JW, Muliro PS, Bebe BO. 2016. Aflatoxin B1 and Deoxynivalenol contamination of dairy feeds and presence of Aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk from smallholder dairy systems in Nakuru, Kenya. International Journal of Food Contamination, 3(1): 1 – 10.

Nemati M, Mehran MA, Hamed PK, Masoud A. 2010. A survey on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples in Ardabil, Iran. Food Control, 21(7): 1022 – 1024.

Norian R, Mahmoudi R, Porfarzaneh A, Mashatian F, Kaboudari A, Rahimi Pir Mahalleh SF, Katiraee F. 2015. Determination of aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk samples using ELISA and high-performance liquid chromatography in Qazvin, Iran. Journal of Mycology Research, 2(1): 41 – 48.

Rahimi E, Bonyadian M, Rafei M, Kazemeini HR. 2010. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of five dairy species in Ahvaz, Iran. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(1): 129 – 131.

Rodriguez Velasco ML, Calonge Delso MM, Ordonez Escudero D. 2003. ELISA and HPLC determination of the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow’s milk. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20(3): 276 – 280.

Roy M, Harris J, Afreen S, Deak E, Gade L, Balajee SA, Park B, Chiller T, Luby S. 2013. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B, 6(1): 17-23.

Stoloff L, Van Egmond HP, Park DL. 1991. Rationales for the establishment of limits and regulations for mycotoxins. Food Additives and Contaminants, 8(2): 213 – 221.

Sumon AH, Islam F, Mohanto NC, Kathak RR, Molla NH, Rana S, Degen GH, Ali N. 2021. The presence of Aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products in Bangladesh. Toxins, 13(7): 440 – 450.

Tarannum N, Nipa MN, Das S, Parveen S. 2020. Aflatoxin M1 detection by ELISA in raw and processed milk in Bangladesh. Toxicology Reports, 7: 1339 – 1343.

Unusan N. 2006. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in UHT milk in Turkey. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 44(11): 1897 – 1900.

Whitlow LW, Hagler WM. 2002. Mycotoxins in feeds. Feedstuffs, 74 (28): 1 – 10.

Williams JH, Phillips TD, Jolly PE, Stiles JK, Jolly CM, Aggarwal D. 2004. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(5): 1106 – 1122.

Xiong J, Xiong L, Zhou H, Liu Y, Wu L. 2018. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in dairy cow feedstuff and aflatoxin M1 in UHT and pasteurized milk in central China. Food Control, 92: 386 – 390.

Zinedine A, Soriano JM, Molto JC, Manes J. 2007. Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: an oestrogenic mycotoxin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(1): 1 – 18.

van Egmond HE. 1989. Aflatoxin M1: Occurrence, toxicity, regulation. Mycotoxins in Dairy Products, p. 11-55., London: Elsevier Applied Science.

van Egmond HP, Schothorst RC, Jonker MA. 2007. Regulations relating to mycotoxins in food. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1): 147 – 157.




How to Cite

Ali, M. S., Ahmed, S., Uddin, M. S., Shabbir, C. A., Saha, S., & Morshed, S. (2023). Prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Fresh Cow Milk Produced in Chattogram, Bangladesh . Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 11(4), 730–736.



Research Paper