Effect of Initial pH on the Microbial Growth, Final pH Value, Crude Protein and Ash Level of Agaricus bisporus Cap and Stem in Submerged Fermentation





submerged fermentation, mushroom, cap, stem, Lactobacillus spp., Agaricus bisporus


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of submerged fermentation with Lactobacillus spp. on the nutritional composition of Agaricus bisporus cap and stem. Fresh A. bisporus was provided, and the cap and stem parts were separated and cut into small pieces. Afterward, distilled water (400 ml) and urea (8.4 g) were added to the mushroom parts (100 g) and placed in different fermentation flasks. The fermentation flasks containing mushroom caps or stems were divided into two groups, and the pH levels of the fermentation medium were adjusted to 6 and 7. Fermentation flasks were autoclaved at 121°C for 15 minutes and Lactobacillus spp. was inoculated to each flask at 1 ml (108 CFU/ml). A positive control group was formed by allocating one uninoculated flask for each replicate of each pH value. Fermentation flasks were incubated for 48 hours at 30°C. After fermentation, fermented and inoculated mushroom cap and stem were analyzed to determine the crude protein, ash content, Lactobacillus spp. count and pH value. Lactobacillus spp. count was higher (P=0.028) in the pH 6 group of mushroom cap and tended to be higher (P=0.078) in the pH 6 group of mushroom stems compared with the pH 7 group. Submerged fermentation decreased (P<0.001) the ash content of the mushroom cap and stem in both pH values except the cap with pH 7 compared with the uninoculated mushroom. Similarly, the fermented mushroom cap and stem had lower (P<0.01) final pH values in both initial pH values. Lactobacillus spp. increased (P<0.001) the crude protein content of the mushroom cap with pH 6 but did not alter the crude protein content with pH 7. Besides, submerged fermentation decreased (P<0.001) the crude protein content of mushroom stem with both pH values. The results indicate that submerged fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. can be used to improve the nutritional composition of mushroom caps with pH 6.


Aasen, I. M., Møretrø, T., Katla, T., Axelsson, L., & Storrø, I. (2000). Influence of complex nutrients, temperature and pH on bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sakei CCUG 42687. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 53, 159-166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530050003.

Altop, A., Coskun, I., Filik, A. G., Cayan, H., Sahin, A., Gungor, E., & Erener, G. (2021). Dietary supplementation of Agaricus bisporus stalk meal on growth performance, carcass and organ traits, meat quality, cecum mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts and intestinal histology in broiler chickens. Ciência Rural, 52, e20201051. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20201051.

AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international 17th edition. Association of Analytical Chemists International, Gaithersburg, MD. Place of publication: USA: AOAC International.

Atila, F., Owaid, M. N., & Shariati, M. A. (2017). The nutritional and medical benefits of Agaricus bisporus: a review. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 2021: 281-6. https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2017/

Batbayar, B., Kryachko, Y., Nickerson, M. T., Korber, D. R., & Tanaka, T. (2023). Solid‐state and submerged fermentation effects on functional properties of pea protein‐enriched flour. Cereal Chemistry, 100(5), 1092-1105. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10691.

Bederska-Łojewska, D., Świątkiewicz, S., & Muszyńska, B. (2017). The use of Basidiomycota mushrooms in poultry nutrition—a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 230, 59-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.001.

Behera, S. S., & Ray, R. C. (2019). Forest bioresources for bioethanol and biodiesel production with emphasis on mohua (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers and seeds. Bioethanol Production from Food Crops. Place of publication. Elsevier; 2019, 233-47.

Brinques, G. B., do Carmo Peralba, M., & Ayub, M. A. Z. (2010). Optimization of probiotic and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum in submerged bioreactor systems. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 37(2), 205-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-009-0665-1.

García-Cano, I., Rocha-Mendoza, D., Ortega-Anaya, J., Wang, K., Kosmerl, E., & Jiménez-Flores, R. (2019). Lactic acid bacteria isolated from dairy products as potential producers of lipolytic, proteolytic and antibacterial proteins. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 103, 5243-5257. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09844-6.

Gungor, E., Altop, A., & Erener, G. (2021). Effect of raw and fermented grape seed on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. Animal, 15(4), 100194. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez538.

Indrastuti, E., Estiasih, T., & Zubaidah, E. (2019). Physicochemical characteristics and In vitro starch digestibility of spontaneously combined submerged and solid state fermented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) flour. Current Nutrition & Food Science, 15(7), 725-734. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573401314666180515112908.

Kumoro, A. C., & Hidayat, J. P. (2018). Functional and thermal properties of flour obtained from submerged fermentation of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) seed chips using Lactobacillus plantarum. Potravinarstvo, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.5219/965.

Kumoro, A. C., Widiyanti, M., Ratnawati, R., & Retnowati, D. S. (2020). Nutritional and functional properties changes during facultative submerged fermentation of gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) tuber flour using Lactobacillus plantarum. Heliyon, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03631.

Ramos, M., Burgos, N., Barnard, A., Evans, G., Preece, J., Graz, M., & Jiménez, A. (2019). Agaricus bisporus and its by-products as a source of valuable extracts and bioactive compounds. Food chemistry, 292, 176-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.04.035.

Tang, J., Wang, X., Hu, Y., Zhang, Y., & Li, Y. (2016). Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR. Waste Management, 52, 278-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.03.034.

Yang, B., Zhao, G., Wang, L., Liu, S., & Tang, J. (2021). Effects of the Agaricus bisporus stem residue on performance, nutrients digestibility and antioxidant activity of laying hens and its effects on egg storage. Animal Bioscience, 34(2), 256. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0853.




How to Cite

Güngör, B., Özlü, Şevket, Güngör, E., Altop, A., & Erener, G. (2024). Effect of Initial pH on the Microbial Growth, Final pH Value, Crude Protein and Ash Level of Agaricus bisporus Cap and Stem in Submerged Fermentation . Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 12(2), 344–348. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v12i2.344-348.6575



Research Paper

Most read articles by the same author(s)