Determination of Drying Characteristics, Energy Consumption and Quality Values of Black Mulberry Fruit (Morus nigra L.) Dried Under Different Conditions
Keywords:Drying, dry duration, modelling, specific energy consumption, quality analysis
AbstractThere are about 68 types of mulberry fruit with a wide ecological production area. Different mulberry species are grown in large fields in Turkey. Mulberries are largely dried-consumed, but sometimes they are used as fruit juice. In this study, black mulberry fruit was collected in two different ripening levels (semi-ripe and full-ripe) and oven-dried at 50, 60 and 70Â°C drying temperatures. Initial moisture contents of semi-ripe and full-ripe fruits were determined as 86.74% and 82.95%, respectively. Fruits were dried to have final moisture levels of 10-15%. Drying duration, drying models, effective diffusion, activation energy, specific energy consumption, color parameters and chemical properties of dried fruits were examined and the effect of ripening levels and drying temperatures were investigated. In terms of drying duration, while full-ripe fruits dried in a shorter time, effective diffusion, activation energy and specific energy consumption values were found to be higher than semi-ripe fruits. In terms of color parameters, semi-ripe fruits are recommended to be dried at 50 or 60Â°C drying temperatures and full-ripe fruits should be dried at 50Â°C drying temperature for better preservation of color parameters. On the other hand, a common proper drying temperature could not be identified for acidity (pH), water soluble dry matter and titratable acidity.
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