Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Machine Learning Algorithms to Determine Minerals and Antioxidant Activity in Commercial Cheese




Erzincan Tulum cheese, minerals, FT-NIRS, FT-MIR, machine learning


Erzincan Tulum Cheese (ETC) holds a significant place among the most popular cheeses in Türkiye. It has been awarded Protected Geographical Indication status, which restricts the allowable milk species, its production area, and specific sheep breed used in its production. Mineral content and antioxidant activity of ETC were aimed to be predicted using conventional FT-NIR and a portable FT-MIR spectrometer combined with partial least square regression (PLSR) and machine learning algorithms based on conditional entropy. Seventy ETC samples were analyzed for their mineral (Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and P) content using ICP-MS. The samples' antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH•+ scavenging activity method. PLSR combined with FT-NIR spectral data correlated with antioxidant activity (r=0.89) and minerals (as low as r=0.83) except for Cr and Fe. FT-MIR data provided a good correlation for minerals (as low as r=0.82) except for Cr and Mn and a moderate correlation with antioxidant activity (r=0.64). Information theory was applied to select wavenumbers used in machine learning algorithms, and better results were obtained compared to PLSR. Overall, FT-NIR and FT-MIR spectroscopy provided rapid (~ 1 min), non-destructive, sensitive, and reliable output for mineral and antioxidant activity predictions in commercial cheese samples.


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How to Cite

Menevşeoglu, A., Gunes, N., Ayvaz, H., Öztürk Sarıkaya, S. B., & Zehiroglu, C. (2023). Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Machine Learning Algorithms to Determine Minerals and Antioxidant Activity in Commercial Cheese . Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 11(12), 2435–2445.



Research Paper